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Benada Jaroslav

Jaroslav BenadaJaroslav Benada, Doc. Ing. Dr. CSc.                                                                                                                                      

Graduated at the Agricultural University Brno Ing -1951, Dr -1952, CSC. – 1955, Assoc. Prof. – 1991
 
Employment: 
1951-1952: Cereal Reseach Institute in  Kroměříž  - Plant Protection  Department 
1952- 1960 : Agricultural University Brno-  Department of Phytopathology 
1960-93 Cereal Reseach Institute  Kroměříž - Plant Protection Department 
1993  retired to pension  and then  adviser   for plant protection in cooperation with Agricultural Research Institute Kroměříž
 
Editorial activities:
1953-60: Compendium Zemědělská fytopatologie (Agricultural phytopathology) in four parts: coeditor of the compendium and author of some parts of it
1960-68: Collection of Atlases of diseases and pests  of cultivated plants ( cereals, leguminous plants, oil plants, suggar beet): coeditor of the collection and author of cereal  diseases
 
Publications:
Scientific contributions – more than 150, popular presentations  more than 180, all from the area of plant protection
Coauthor of many publications of cereal growing technologies 
 
Since 1961 he was  interested in  investigating the nature of plant resistance.to diseases. He focused his attention on variable resistance of cereals to obligate parasites such as powdery mildew and rusts. It was necessary to find out a factor which changes during the ontogeny and through the environment. The solution was found up in biophysical values (redox and pH).
 
 He presented new hypothesis:
The principle of resistance consists in the ability of the parasite to gain the energy in the host cell. The parasite uses the terminal oxidase of the host plasmalemma.
The specific phenolics are the substrate for this enzyme. The main features of this hypothesis are:
1. There is no free oxygen in the cell plasma.
2. The redox potentials are generated by the respiration of the cells by the sum of activities in cell organelles which produce the electrons and the activity of oxidoreductase (the terminal oxidase) in the plasmalemma. The electron carriers can permeate from the cell to the environment and they are soluble in water.
3. The redox potential is the basis of electric gradients in the plant which plays the main role in its integrity as well as for the life of the parasite.
4. The parasite respires through the terminal oxidase of the host.
5. The environmental conditions influence the enzyme activity of host and parasite cells differently by which different redox potentials may appear in the host and parasite cells resulting in unspecific oxidation or reduction of electron carriers.
6. The acidity of the host cells determinates the formation of conidia or cleistothecia (in powdery mildew) or formation of redia or telia (in rusts).
7. Depend on redox potential it is possible to explain some correlations in plants. 
Without knowledge of RP gradients it is not possible to explain the integrity of plants and related phenomena. 
 
There are the most important papers in PDF:
 
Considerations about the resistance of barley against the powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC.) from the point of view oxidation-reduction potentials. (1964)
Die veranderungen in der resistenz gegen mehltau und roste wahrend der ontogenetischen entwicklung der getreidearten. (1964)
The influence of pH of barley tissues on the symptoms caused by powdery mildew  (Erysiphe graminis DC.)  (1965)
Effect of CCC on oxidation-reduction potencials of cereals under the influence of environment.  (1966)
The gradients of oxidation-reduction potencials in cereals and the dependence of obligate parasites on the redox potencials of the host tissues. (1966)
The occurrence of telia ruts and of Cleistothecia of powdery mildew on cereals and an attempt to find a factor conditioning it. (1966)
The dependence on the pH of the host tissue for the production of uredia and telia in uromyces pisi (Pers.) de Bary. (1967)
The distribution of redox potentials and pH values in the leaves of cereal tillers during the stem extension. (1967)
Redox potential gradients in the flower. (1967)
A study on the correlation between the expansion of plant organs and oxidation reduction potencials. (1967)
The effect of wilting on the redox potential of cereal leaves. (1967)
The germination of cereal seeds and the anaerobic treatment of them from the point of viw of redox potentials. (1968)
The effect of IAA on the tropisms of Helianthus annuus L. seedings in the relationship width redox potential gradients. (1968)
The measurement of redox potential in plants and some applications on the growth and development of cereals. (1968)
Brown patches on leaves of barley in the ralationship to powdery mildew. (1969)
The effect of different conditions of cultivation of powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC.) on the infectivity. (1970)
Chlorotic spots on cereal leaves as the expression of resistance against powdery mildew. (1970)
Observations on early phases of infection by powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC.).(1970)
The testing of cereal correlation between the biophysical states in the host tissues and the susceptibility of cereals to powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC.). (1971)
The growth of the roots of barley in the dependence on oxidation reduction potencial, nitrogen nutrition and aeration of nutrient  solution. (1972)
Použití redoxních potenciálů při studiu ekologie obilnin - The use of oxidation reduction potentials in the study of ecology of cereals. (1973)
Pokus o vysvětlení některých korelací u hrachu a lnu ze stanoviska redoxních potenciálů. (1986)
The nature of resistance of plants to obligate parasites. (1991)
The determination of stress effect on whea disposition to Septoria nodorum BERK. based on electric potencial. (1991)
K měření redoxního potenciálu v půdě. (1995)
Mechanism of plant disease resistance to obligate parasites in relation to biophysical states. (1997)
Význam biofyzikálních stavů pro fytopatologii a fyziologii rostlin. (1998)
Biophysical states in plants and their function in the mechanism of resistance to diseases and in plant physiology - review. (2002)
Redox potential in plants and its function in the mechanism of resistance to diseases and in plant physiology. (2008)
A non-invasive method for redox potential measurement - Neinvazivní metoda měření redoxních potenciálů u rostlin. (2009)
Význam redoxních potenciálů a pH pletiv rostlin pro jejich rezistenci k chorobám a pro fyziologii rostlin. Review. (2012)
Redox potential and pH in plants and their function in the mechanism of resistance to diseases and in plant physiology. Review. (2012)
Dynamic nature of plant disease resistance. (2013)
Forecasting of disease epidemics in cereals. (2015)
Direct redox potential (Eh) recording in plant tissue. (2016)
Hook formation in germinating seeds of dicotyledonous plants (sunflower Helianthus annuus). (2016)
Literatura - bibliography
  
     

Redox potential and pH in plants and their function in the mechanism of resistance to diseases and in plant physiology.

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